Albuterol Catalog Description (6mg/ml, 60ml)
Albuterol (salbutamol) is a beta-2 (B2) adrenergic agonist primarily used to treat bronchial asthma. Albuterol has been demonstrated to improve body composition through multiple pathways and may enhance performance under certain conditions. The mechanism of action and effect of albuterol resemble that of clenbuterol, with a shorter duration of effect (2-6 hours as opposed to 16-24 or greater). Albuterol is used in emergencies due to its fast onset and well-characterized duration of action. Beta-2 adrenergic receptors have been shown to lower C-reactive proteins (an inflammation marker) in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Albuterol acts on adrenergic receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the body. A key physiological purpose of the adrenergic receptor occurs when catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine when the “fight or flight” response is triggered by stress or danger. The adrenergic receptors immediately increase heart rate, dilate the pupils, divert blood flow to skeletal muscle, and mobilize and prepare for substrate utilization (energy/fuel and oxygen) in conflict or escape.
Beta-2 agonists like albuterol are banned in sport (WADA), due to a range of effects that are perceived as contributing to performance enhancement:
Athletes attempt to improve performance with drugs that act on the beta-adrenergic system directly or indirectly. Of three beta-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes, the beta(2)-AR is the main target in sport; they have bronchodilator and anabolic actions and enhance anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids.
However, the authors (Davis, Loicono, and Summers) question the actual utility of beta agonists for acute performance enhancement purposes:
Although demonstrable in animal experiments and humans, there is little evidence that these properties can significantly improve performance in trained athletes. Their actions may also be compromised by receptor desensitization and by common, naturally occurring receptor mutations (polymorphisms) that can influence receptor signalling and desensitization properties in individuals. ...These agents can have potent psychostimulant effects that provide an illusion of better performance that does not usually translate into improvement in practice.(emphasis added)
However, used over time the anti-inflammatory and pro-anabolic effects of albuterol may outweigh the questionable efficacy of acute performance enhancement usage.
Albuterol also contributes to improved body composition through reduced body-fat. Albuterol mobilizes fat stores through B2 adrenergic receptor agonism. Another effect contributing to albuterol’s ability to reduce adiposity is an anorectic (appetite-reducing) action upon administration.
Abuterol increases fat loss through mobilization of free fatty acids (FFAs), a process called lipoylsis; it also increases energy expenditure even when FFAs are absent, albeit at a higher rate in lean individuals than obese individuals.
Albuterol has been proposed as a treatment for pediatric obesity, with or without caffeine:
albuterol with caffeine produced significantly greater increases in lean body mass and reductions in fat mass without changes in food intake after 4-8 weeks of treatment. Since caffeine and albuterol are approved for the treatment of asthma in children and adolescents at the doses tested and change body composition without changing food intake, this combination may deserve further exploration for use in treating pediatric obesity.
The authors tout albuterol’s known safety profile, current approval status for pediatric asthma, and the fact that significant comorbidity of asthma and obesity is present in that demographic.
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Liu AG, Arceneaux KP 3rd, Chu JT2, Jacob G Jr, Schreiber AL, Tipton RC, Yu Y, Johnson WD, Greenway FL, Primeaux SD. The effect of caffeine and albuterol on body composition and metabolic rate. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Sep;23(9):1830-5